Cataract surgery is a removal of natural lens of the eye which become cloudy and replacing it with an artificial lens called intraocular lens(IOL). Cataract is not a disease, it is merely an age related process.
Most commonly cataract occurs due to age. The age related cataract is also called senile cataract. There is no specific age at which a person will develop cataract. Senile cataract is commonly seen in 5th or 6th decade of life. Cataract can occur after injury (called traumatic cataract), at birth or in childhood (congenital cataract), in patients with metabolic disorders (metabolic cataract). Each type of cataract requires specific techniques for attainment of optimal vision. Cataract surgery needs an expert cataract surgeons’ opinion and patient should ask the treating surgeon about the procedure and post operative care. Cataract surgery can change the patient’s life by giving him the clear vision.
Types of IOLs:
The IOLs help in focussing light on the retina thereby attaining clear vision post surgery. Choosing the correct lens for your eye is sometimes challenging as different lenses have different advantages and limitations. These lenses are placed for lifetime so choose the lenses carefully! A proper understanding and discussion with your eye specialist is essential in the decision making.
Due to advancement in technology different lenses are available with different advantages. Based on the material of the IOLs, they can be hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Both of these lenses have different advantages and disadvantages. Ask your eye surgeon which one is most suitable for you.
Based on the material of the IOL and their delivery systems, IOLs can be rigid or foldable lenses. Rigid lenses are made of PMMA(polymethyl methacrylate). They require a large incision(5.5-6.5 mm) to be inserted in the eye and placed in the lens bag. Non foldable IOLs are preferred in manual cataract surgery(ECCE or SICS) where a large incision is used for cataract removal.
Foldable IOLs are made of either silicone or acrylic. They have a property that a large lens can be folded and inserted into the eye and they open up inside the lens bag.
Based on the point of maximum clarity that the IOL provides, they can be monofocal, multifocal or trifocal IOLs.
These lenses help in focusing for distant objects or for seeing far. If you choose these lenses for your eyes during cataract surgery, then for reading and computer use you have to wear reading glasses. These lenses give good distance vision and no near vision.
multifocal IOLs have been used for distance and near vision till a couple of years back. But the results of multifocal lenses were not satisfactory. Patient could not enjoy complete freedom from glasses with these IOLs and they also had the problems of glare and haloes. The main disadvantage of multifocal IOLs was that they didn’t provide clear vision for intermediate distance.
To overcome the limitations of multifocal lenses, trifocal IOLs were launched. These are newer technology lenses in which patient can see distance, intermediate and near object clearly and dependency on glasses is grossly reduced.These advanced intraocular lenses expand your range of vision, reducing vision loss caused by presbyopia, so you can read and see clearly up close without reading glasses. These lenses are expensive in comparison to monofocal lenses.
These are special kind of lenses which are used in eyes in which moderate to high astigmatism is present. These lenses are available in two types. One is Toric monofocal and other is Toric trifocal. Depending upon patients’ need, surgeon decides which type of toric IOL is suitable for the eye.
Different companies make these lenses. They can be national and international. Every lens has some advantages and some limitations. You can discuss with your doctor to know about them.
So if you are going for the cataract surgery discuss with your ophthalmologist what type of activities you do routinely and based on your needs, the operating surgeon will decide which lens is most advisable for your eyes.
Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) or After Cataract:
This is an opacification or whitening which occurs in the posterior layer of the lens bag. It is a very common occurrence and hampers vision. It is more commonly seen in young patients who have undergone cataract surgery
‘Square edge’ IOLs have been developed prevent or delay the occurrence of PCO.
It can be removed by a simple laser procedure called Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. Once its removed, it cannot recur. After YAG capsulotomy, the vision becomes clear again.
To know more about these lenses call on 9212259171 OR 01125889900